Clomid is an oral medication that can be used to stimulate ovulation. It works by blocking estrogen receptors at the hypothalamus.
Clomid can be helpful for those trying to get pregnant who have any of the following problems:
- Irregular ovulation
- Unexplained infertility
- Male factor fertility problems
CLOMID (clomiphene citrate tablets USP) is an orally administered, nonsteroidal, ovulatory stimulant designated chemically as 2-[p-(2-chloro-1,2-diphenylvinyl)phenoxy] triethylamine citrate (1:1). It has the molecular formula of C26H28ClNO • C6H8O7 and a molecular weight of 598.09.
Clomiphene citrate is a white to pale yellow, essentially odorless, crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in methanol; soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in acetone, water, and chloroform; and insoluble in ether.CLOMID is a mixture of two geometric isomers [cis (zuclomiphene) and trans (enclomiphene)] containing between 30% and 50% of the cis-isomer.
CLOMID is indicated for the treatment of ovulatory dysfunction in women desiring pregnancy. Impediments to achieving pregnancy must be excluded or adequately treated before beginning CLOMID therapy. Those patients most likely to achieve success with clomiphene therapy include patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (see WARNINGS: Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome), amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, psychogenic amenorrhea, post-oral-contraceptive amenorrhea, and certain cases of secondary amenorrhea of undetermined etiology.
Properly timed coitus in relationship to ovulation is important. A basal body temperature graph or other appropriate tests may help the patient and her physician determine if ovulation occurred. Once ovulation has been established, each course of CLOMID should be started on or about the 5th day of the cycle. Long-term cyclic theraCLOMID is indicated only in patients with demonstrated ovulatory dysfunction who meet the conditions described below:
CLOMID is indicated only in patients with demonstrated ovulatory dysfunction who meet the conditions described below:
1.Patients who are not pregnant.
2.Patients without ovarian cysts. CLOMID should not be used in patients with ovarian enlargement except those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pelvic examination is necessary prior to the first and each subsequent course of CLOMID treatment.
3.Patients without abnormal vaginal bleeding. If abnormal vaginal bleeding is present, the patient should be carefully evaluated to ensure that neoplastic lesions are not present.
4.Patients with normal liver function.
In addition, patients selected for CLOMID therapy should be evaluated in regard to the following:
1.Estrogen Levels. Patients should have adequate levels of endogenous estrogen (as estimated from vaginal smears, endometrial biopsy, assay of urinary estrogen, or from bleeding in response to progesterone). Reduced estrogen levels, while less favorable, do not preclude successful therapy.
2.Priary Pituitary or Ovarian Failure. CLOMID therapy cannot be expected to substitute for specific treatment of other causes of ovulatory failure.
Endometriosis and Endometrial Carcinoma. The incidence of endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma increases with age as does the incidence of ovulatory disorders. Endometrial biopsy should always be performed prior to CLOMID therapy in this population.
3.Other Impediments to Pregnancy. Impediments to pregnancy can include thyroid disorders, adrenal disorders, hyperprolactinemia, and male factor infertility.
4.Uterine Fibroids. Caution should be exercised when using CLOMID in patients with uterine fibroids due to the potential for further enlargement of the fibroids.
There are no adequate or well-controlled studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of CLOMID in the treatment of male infertility. In addition, testicular tumors and gynecomastia have been reported in males using clomiphene. The cause and effect relationship between reports of testicular tumors and the administration of CLOMID is not known.Although the medical literature suggests various methods, there is no universally accepted standard regimen for combined therapy (ie, CLOMID in conjunction with other ovulation-inducing drugs). Similarly, there is no standard CLOMID regimen for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization programs to produce ova for fertilization and reintroduction. Therefore, CLOMID is not recommended for these uses.